Behaviorist and Constructivist Implications for Instruction

Behaviorist and Constructivist Implications for Instruction
Design Element Behaviorist-objectivist Cognitive-constructivist
Perspective on learning The transfer of knowledge from expert to learner; the acquisition of knowledge The construction of knowledge by the learner through active engagement in working with information

The development of learning skills for self-responsibility

Perspective on knowledge Objective, independent, stable, applied, fixed Subjective, contextualized, relative, situated in action, fluid
Instruction Teacher-centered Learner-centered
Role of teacher Expert source of knowledge Guide, facilitator
Role of learner Passive recipient who produces prescribed outcomes Active participant responsible for his or her own learning outcomes
Common teaching-learning methods Information delivery: Lecture, presentation, well-defined problems, standardized content Interactive engagement: Case studies, projects, simulations, discussions, journals, open-ended problems, reflective activities, modular content
Assessment Objective and standardized tests (e.g., multiple choice examinations), assessment by teacher "Authentic" methods that enable learners to express or demonstrate what they have learned, such as portfolios, projects, open-ended applications; more student responsibility for self-assessment